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Santiniketan's artist teachers' refusal of subordination incorporated a counter vision of modernity, which sought to correct the racial and cultural essentialism that drove and characterized imperial Western modernity and modernism. Those European modernities, projected through a triumphant British colonial power, provoked nationalist responses, equally problematic when they incorporated similar essentialisms. In Provincializing Europe , Dipesh Chakrabarty charted the subaltern history of the Indian struggle for independence, and countered Eurocentric, Western scholarship about non-Western peoples and cultures, by proposing that Western Europe simply be considered as culturally equal to the other cultures of the world, that is, as "one region among many" in human geography.

Derek Gregory argues the long trajectory through history of British and American colonization is an ongoing process still happening today. In The Colonial Present , Gregory traces connections between the geopolitics of events happening in modern-day Afghanistan, Palestine , and Iraq and links it back to the us-and-them binary relation between the Western and Eastern world. Building upon the ideas of the other and Said's work on orientalism, Gregory critiques the economic policy, military apparatus, and transnational corporations as vehicles driving present day colonialism.

Emphasizing ideas of discussing ideas around colonialism in the present tense, Gregory utilizes modern events such as the September 11 attacks to tell spatial stories around the colonial behavior happening due to the War on Terror. Acheraiou argues that colonialism was a capitalist venture moved by appropriation and plundering of foreign lands and was supported by military force and a discourse that legitimized violence in the name of progress and a universal civilizing mission.

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This discourse is complex and multi-faceted. It was elaborated in the 19th century by colonial ideologues such as Joseph-Ernest Renan and Arthur de Gobineau , but its roots reach far back in history. In Rethinking Postcolonialism: Colonialist Discourse in Modern Literature and the Legacy of Classical Writers, Amar Acheraiou discusses the history of colonialist discourse and traces its spirit to ancient Greece, including Europe's claim to racial supremacy and right to rule over non-Europeans harboured by Renan and other 19th century colonial ideologues.

He argues that modern colonial representations of the colonized as "inferior", "stagnant" and "degenerate" were borrowed from Greek and Latin authors like Lysias — BC , Isocrates — BC , Plato — BC , Aristotle — BC , Cicero —43 BC , and Sallust 86—34 BC , who all considered their racial others — the Persians, Scythians, Egyptians as "backward", "inferior", and "effeminate". In The Politics, he established a racial classification and ranked the Greeks superior to the rest. He considered them as an ideal race to rule over Asian and other 'barbarian' peoples, for they knew how to blend the spirit of the European "war-like races" with Asiatic "intelligence" and "competence".

Ancient Rome was a source of admiration in Europe since the enlightenment. In France, Voltaire was one of the most fervent admirers of Rome. He regarded highly the Roman republican values of rationality, democracy, order and justice. In early-eighteenth century Britain, it was poets and politicians like Joseph Addison — and Richard Glover — who were vocal advocates of these ancient republican values.

It was in the mid-eighteenth century that ancient Greece became a source of admiration among the French and British. This enthusiasm gained prominence in the late-eighteenth century. These scholars and poets regarded ancient Greece as the matrix of Western civilization and a model of beauty and democracy. In the nineteenth century when Europe began to expand across the globe and establish colonies, ancient Greece and Rome were used as a source of empowerment and justification to Western civilizing mission. At this period, many French and British imperial ideologues identified strongly with the ancient empires and invoked ancient Greece and Rome to justify the colonial civilizing project.

They urged European colonizers to emulate these "ideal" classical conquerors, whom they regarded as "universal instructors". For Alexis de Tocqueville — , an ardent and influential advocate of la "Grande France," the classical empires were model conquerors to imitate. He advised the French colonists in Algeria to follow the ancient imperial example.

In , he stated: 'what matters most when we want to set up and develop a colony is to make sure that those who arrive in it are as less estranged as possible, that these newcomers meet a perfect image of their homeland…. The Romans established in almost all parts of the globe known to them municipalities which were no more than miniature Romes.

Among modern colonizers, the English did the same. Who can prevent us from emulating these European peoples? John-Robert Seeley , a history professor at Cambridge and proponent of imperialism stated in a rhetoric which echoed that of Renan that the role of the British Empire was 'similar to that of Rome, in which we hold the position of not merely of ruling but of an educating and civilizing race.

The incorporation of ancient concepts and racial and cultural assumptions into modern imperial ideology bolstered colonial claims to supremacy and right to colonize non-Europeans. Because of these numerous ramifications between ancient representations and modern colonial rhetoric, 19th century's colonialist discourse acquires a "multi-layered" or "palimpsestic" structure. As a literary theory , postcolonialism deals with the literatures produced by the peoples who once were colonized by the European imperial powers e. Britain, France, and Spain and the literatures of the decolonized countries engaged in contemporary, postcolonial arrangements e.

Organisation internationale de la Francophonie and the Commonwealth of Nations with their former mother countries. In Dutch literature, the Indies Literature includes the colonial and postcolonial genres, which examine and analyze the formation of a postcolonial identity, and the postcolonial culture produced by the diaspora of the Indo-European peoples, the Eurasian folk who originated from Indonesia; the peoples who were the colony of the Dutch East Indies ; in the literature, the notable author is Tjalie Robinson.

M Coetzee 's Waiting for the Barbarians depicts the unfair and inhuman situation of people dominated by settlers.

22. Post-Colonial Criticism

To perpetuate and facilitate control of the colonial enterprise, some colonized people, especially from among the subaltern peoples of the British Empire, were sent to attend university in the Imperial Motherland; they were to become the native-born, but Europeanised, ruling class of colonial satraps.

Yet, after decolonization, their bicultural educations originated postcolonial criticism of empire and colonialism, and of the representations of the colonist and the colonized. In the late twentieth century, after the dissolution of the USSR , the constituent soviet socialist republics became the literary subjects of postcolonial criticism, wherein the writers dealt with the legacies cultural, social, economic of the Russification of their peoples, countries, and cultures in service to Greater Russia.

Postcolonial literary study is in two categories: i that of the postcolonial nations, and ii that of the nations who continue forging a postcolonial national identity. The first category of literature presents and analyzes the internal challenges inherent to determining an ethnic identity in a decolonized nation. The second category of literature presents and analyzes the degeneration of civic and nationalist unities consequent to ethnic parochialism, usually manifested as the demagoguery of "protecting the nation", a variant of the Us-and-Them binary social relation.

Regarding sociolinguistic interpretations of literary texts through postcolonial lenses we may refer to Jaydeep Sarangi's book, Indian Novels in English: A Sociolinguistic Study As such, the fragmented national identity remains a characteristic of such societies, consequence of the imperially convenient, but arbitrary, colonial boundaries geographic and cultural demarcated by the Europeans, with which they ignored the tribal and clan relations that determined the geographic borders of the Middle East countries, before the arrival of European imperialists.

Most countries of the Middle East, suffered from the fundamental problems over their national identities. More than three-quarters of a century after the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, from which most of them emerged, these states have been unable to define, project, and maintain a national identity that is both inclusive and representative.

Independence and the end of colonialism did not end social fragmentation and war civil and international in the Middle East. In the event, "in places like Iraq and Jordan, leaders of the new sovereign states were brought in from the outside, [and] tailored to suit colonial interests and commitments. Likewise, most states in the Persian Gulf were handed over to those [Europeanised colonial subjects] who could protect and safeguard imperial interests in the post-withdrawal phase. In the late 19th century, the Scramble for Africa — proved to be the tail end of mercantilist colonialism of the European imperial powers, yet, for the Africans, the consequences were greater than elsewhere in the colonized non—Western world.

To facilitate the colonization the European empires laid railroads where the rivers and the land proved impassable. The Imperial British railroad effort proved overambitious in the effort of traversing continental Africa, yet succeeded only in connecting colonial North Africa Cairo with the colonial south of Africa Cape Town. Upon arriving to Africa, the Europeans encountered the native African civilizations of the Ashanti Empire , the Benin Empire , the Kingdom of Dahomey , the Buganda Kingdom Uganda , and the Kingdom of Kongo , all of which were annexed by imperial powers under the belief that they required European stewardship, as proposed and justified in the essay "The African Character" , by G.

Hegel , in keeping with his philosophic opinion that cultures were stages in the course of the historical unfolding of The Absolute. See: Things Fall Apart , In postcolonial countries of Africa, the Africans and the non—Africans live in a world of genders, ethnicities, classes and languages, of ages, families, professions, religions and nations. There is a suggestion that individualism and postcolonialism are essentially discontinuous and divergent cultural phenomena.

Cochinchina southern Vietnam was the first territory under French Control. Saigon was conquered in Then, in , the Indochinese Union Union indochinoise was established. Trinh T. Minh-ha has been developing her innovative theories about postcolonialism in various means of expression, literature, films, and teaching. She is best known for her film "Reassemblage", made in , in which she tried to deconstruct anthropology, as a "western male hegemonic ideology". In she wrote "Woman, Native, Other: Writing Postcoloniality and Feminism", where she focuses on the acknowledgement of oral tradition.

Structural adjustment programmes SAPs implemented by the World Bank and IMF are viewed by some postcolonialists as the modern procedure of colonization. Structural adjustment programmes SAPs calls for trade liberalization, privatization of banks, health care, and educational institutions. Limited to production and exportation of cash crops, many African nations acquired more debt, and were left stranded in a position where acquiring more loan and continuing to pay high interest became an endless cycle. Osterhammel's The Dictionary of Human Geography uses the definition of colonialism as "enduring relationship of domination and mode of dispossession, usually or at least initially between an indigenous or enslaved majority and a minority of interlopers colonizers , who are convinced of their own superiority, pursue their own interests, and exercise power through a mixture of coercion, persuasion, conflict and collaboration".

Indian Marxist scholar Vivek Chibber has critiqued some foundational logics of postcolonial theory in his book Postcolonial Theory and the Specter of Capital.

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Developing on Aijaz Ahmad 's earlier critique of Said's Orientalism [49] and Sumit Sarkar's critique of the subaltern studies scholars. Postcolonial theory, he argues, essentializes cultures, painting them as fixed and static categories. Moreover, it presents the difference between East and West as unbridgeable, hence denying people's "universal aspirations" and "universal interests". He also criticized the postcolonial tendency to characterize all of Enlightenment values as Eurocentric. According to him, the theory will be remembered "for its revival of cultural essentialism and its acting as an endorsement of orientalism , rather than being an antidote to it.

The concentration of postcolonial studies upon the subject of national identity has determined it is essential to the creation and establishment of a stable nation and country in the aftermath of decolonization; yet indicates that either an indeterminate or an ambiguous national identity has tended to limit the social, cultural, and economic progress of a decolonized people.

Nevertheless, Kumaraswamy and Sadiki said that such a common sociological problem—that of an indeterminate national identity—among the countries of the Middle East is an important aspect that must be accounted in order to have an understanding of the politics of the contemporary Middle East. In an effort to understand postcolonialism through scholarship and technology, in addition to important literature, many stakeholders have published projects about the subject.

Here is an incomplete list of projects. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The academic study of the cultural legacy of colonialism and imperialism. Main article: Postcolonial literature. Geographies of Postcolonialism. SAGE Publications. Milan W. Dan Slater. Kathleen Thelen. James Mahoney. Mark Irving Lichbach. Pepper D. Beverly J. Jeremy M. Elisabeth Jean Wood. Lily Lee Tsai. Andreas Wimmer. Roger D. Michael Albertus. Sven Steinmo. Cathie Jo Martin. Herbert Kitschelt.

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