One particularly persistent trope is that the region is a dangerous powder keg because of the legacy of Soviet borders. When he drew lines on a map to form new Soviet republics in the s, he created minorities that were bound to make them unstable. Why is this a problem?
Firstly, it suggests that Central Asians are prisoners of their past, with no agency of their own that might allow them to escape it. Secondly, it grossly misrepresents that past.
Border Regions Series
And, above all, they were not imposed unilaterally from Moscow. One of the major developments in the historiography of the USSR since Soviet archives opened after has been a series of in-depth studies of Soviet nationalities policy in non-Russian regions, and particularly in Central Asia. This was not a cynical divide-and-rule policy, but a response to the strength of nationalist movements that had emerged in many parts of the Russian Empire during the period of the revolution and civil war. This was not a top-down process driven by the Central Party organization in Moscow.
In the s, the Soviet regime in Central Asia was fragile, and badly in need of local allies. As Adrienne Edgar has shown for Turkmenistan, Paul Bergne for Tajikistan, Ali Igmen for Kyrgyzstan, Adeeb Khalid for Uzbekistan and Dina Amanzholova and Tomohiko Uyama for Kazakhstan, the new national units grew out of an often uneasy political alliance between local nationalist intellectuals and the Soviet state — most importantly the so-called Jadids in Uzbekistan and the Alash Orda in Kazakhstan.
Local communist organizations, which had significant numbers of local cadres, played a key role in negotiating the new national boundaries with Moscow and with each other. Unlike in Africa — where at the Berlin Congress, European colonial powers really did just draw lines on the map, or in the Middle East, where the Sykes-Picot agreement paid little or no attention to local political desires — the borders that emerged in Central Asia were not drawn at random, even if at times they often seem to defy geographical logic.
They were a product of late-Tsarist and early-Soviet census data, ethnographic and orientalist scholarship, and also in part of the process of raionirovanie — identifying supposedly rational and viable economic units, and ensuring that each new state met minimum criteria for becoming a full-blown Soviet Socialist Republic: these included a population of at least a million, and a capital city connected by rail. Tashkent and Shymkent were both cities with a mixed population of Europeans and Uzbeks, surrounded by a hinterland populated largely by Kazakhs. They may separate societies with very different cultures, histories, national identities or economic power, or divide people of the same ethnic or cultural identity.
As manifestations of some of the world's key political, economic, societal and cultural issues, borders and border regions have received much academic attention over the past decade. This valuable series publishes high quality research monographs and edited comparative volumes that deal with all aspects of border regions, both empirically and theoretically.
It will appeal to scholars interested in border regions and geopolitical issues across the whole range of social sciences. This book looks at the ways African borders impact war and conflict, as well as the ways continental integration could contribute towards cooperation, peace and well-being in Africa.
African borders or borderlands can be a source of problems and opportunity. There is often a historical, geospatial…. Hardback — Routledge Border Regions Series. For whom and why are borders drawn? What are the symbolic projections of these physical realities? And what are the symbolic projections of these physical realities? Constituted by experience and memory, borders shape a "border image" in the minds and social memory of people beyond the lines of the….
Paperback — Routledge Border Regions Series. The optimism heralded by the end of the Cold War and the idea of an emerging borderless world was soon shadowed by conflicts, wars, terrorism, and new border walls. Migrants, asylum seekers, and refugees have simultaneously become key political figures. Border and mobility studies are now two sides…. Edited by Elisabeth Boesen , Gregor Schnuer.
Borders in Post-Socialist Europe | Territory, Scale, Society | Taylor & Francis Group
The expectations of European planners for the gradual disappearance of national borders, and the corresponding prognoses of social scientists, have turned out to be over-optimistic. Borders have not disappeared — not even in a unified and predominantly peaceful Europe — but rather they have changed…. Through the lens of ethnographic research and oral history, the book explores social….
Analyzing neighbourly relations in multicultural societies, this book develops a concept of good neighbourhood and argues that cultural capital in various forms is the determining variable in building good-neighbourly relations. This work breaks new ground by offering a conceptual integration of…. Frontiers are "wild.
If the frontier is shaped by the policing of borders by the modern-nation state, then what kind of zones, regions or…. By Olga Sasunkevich.
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- I Love Cute Puppies and Dogs 4 books in 1 (A Learn to Read Picture Book for Kids) Complete Volume?
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- Remembering the Music, Forgetting the Words: Travels with Mom in the Land of Dementia.
Detailing the history of a well-known phenomenon of post-socialism - cross-border petty trade and smuggling - as the history of a practice in daily life from a gendered perspective, this book considers how changes in these practices in a particular border region, between Belarus and Lithuania, have…. By Tiina Sotkasiira. While moving across borders has been made easier for some in Russia in recent years, for others, physical as well as socio-cultural borders are proving to be more and more difficult to cross.
Tackling the differences between the ways in which official discourses construct borders and the ways…. Shedding light on the recent mutations of the Israeli separation policy, whose institutional and spatial configurations are increasingly complex, this book argues that this policy has actually reinforced the interconnectedness of Israelis and Palestinian lives and their spaces.
Charles King. Neoclassical Realism, the State, and Foreign Policy. Steven E. Civil Society in Putin's Russia. Elena Chebankova. The Politics of Knowledge in Central Asia. Sarah Amsler. The Realism Reader. Colin Elman. Autobiographies of Transformation. Mike Keen. The New Great Transformation? Christopher Bryant. At the Crossroads of Post-Communist Modernisation. Mapping Modernities. Alan Dingsdale. The EU-Russia Borderland. Heikki Eskelinen. Social Change And Political Transformation. Howard Davis. European Society.
William Outhwaite. Europe Unbound. Jan Zielonka. Vocabularies of International Relations after the Crisis in Ukraine. Andrey Makarychev. Hilary Pilkington. Feminist Review.
The Feminist Review Collective. Rethinking Class in Russia. Suvi Salmenniemi.
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Building Fortress Europe. Karolina S. National Minorities in Putin's Russia. Federica Prina. Post-Soviet Social. Stephen J Collier. Dan Stone. Postcommunism from Within. Jan Kubik. Theorising NATO. Mark Webber. Thinking about Development. Bjorn Hettne. Globalizing Knowledge. Michael D. Security Strategies, Power Disparity and Identity. Olav F. Women and Transformation in Russia.
Aino Saarinen. European Security in Integration Theory. Kamil Zwolski.